Archive | April, 2013
Aside 8 Apr

The Reality of Decision-Making

 

Some proposed definitions of decision-making experts described as follows (Hasan, 2004):

1. According to George R. Terry

Decision making is the selection of alternative behavior (behavior) of certain of two or more alternatives.

 

2. According S.P. Siagian

Decision making is a systematic approach to the nature of the alternatives they face and take appropriate action according to the calculations is the most appropriate action.

 

3. According to James A.F. Stoner

Decision making is a process used to choose an action as a way of solving the problem. Notions of the above decision, it can be concluded that decision making is a process of selecting the best alternative from several alternatives systematically to follow up (used) as a way of solving the problem

 

4. According Sondang P. Siagian was quoted as saying by the GK. Manila in his book Management Practices in State Government, there four models of decision making that is:

 

a. Model optimization. Decision-making in order to obtain results which can be achieved and can not be separated from the limited resources no. This model is based on the maximum criteria,

probability, and benefits.

 

b. Models satisfying. Decision making is not solely through rationality and logic approach procedure but in reality, so that decision makers are satisfied with and proud when decisions taken are adequate to fruition.

 

c. Mixed scanning models. Decision-making that incorporates Among high rationality approach with a pragmatic approach.

 

d. Heuristic models. Decision making based on concepts entirely ynag held by decision makers that is based on his own views on the problem at hand.

 

While Bedjo Siswanto in his book Modern Management said there are two models of decision making that often there within the organization, namely:

 

a. Normative model, which is a model of decision making embody the manager about how he should take a group decision. These models have generally been developed by economists and other management scientists. One example of this model in educational institutions is about financial budgeting.

 

b. Descriptive models, ie models that explain the decision-making concrete behavior and this model has been developed by behavioral scientists Opinion for this article : I think the decision-

making must consider what will be decided to achieve maximum results as what is already

planned and could possibly reduce the risk of the impact of the decision-making.

Vocabulary:

1. behavior      : kebiasaan

2. approach      : mencapai

3. Notions       : pengertian

4. Government            : pemerintah

5. separated     : terpisah

6. embody       : mewujudkan

 Nama: Enfanriandi

Kelas: 1EA17

NPM: 12212503

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Aside 8 Apr

Steps in the Decisions Process

 

You can adapt the familiar five-step decision making process (outlined below) to decide which program or service to assess.

 

Step 1 Identifying/clarifying the decision to be made.

If the decision has not yet been isolated, it should be identified as a first step. Sometimes the decision to be made will have been presented to the decision maker. In those situations, Step 1 calls for the clarification of what the decision actually entails.

 

Step 2 Identifying possible decision options.

The next step requires the decision maker to spell out, as clearly as possible, just what the decision alternatives really are. For instance, if one were attempting to buy a bicycle, do the

decision options only consist of the different types of bicycles, or is another option to refrain from buying a bicycle altogether?

 

Step 3 Gathering/processinginformation.

Next,the decision maker collects or processes information that can help guide the decision.If such information is already at hand, then it simply needs to be processed; that is, studied and understood by the decision maker. If there is no relevant information available, or if there is insufficient information, then such information must be collected so it can beprocessed. The more significant the decision, the more rigorous the information-gatheringprocess.

 

Step 4 Making/ implementing the decision.

After the information has been considered according to its relevance and significance, a decision based on that information should bemade and, thereafter,implemented.

 

Step 5 Evaluating the decision.

In recognition of the fact that not all of one’s decisions are likely to be defensible, the final step in the five-step decision making process is to determine whether the decision was appropriate. Ordinarily, this will be done by ascertaining the decision’s consequences.

 

Vocabulary:

1. adapt           : beradaptasi

2. clarifying     : menjelaskan

3. attempting   : mencoba

4. according    : berdasarkan

5. implemented: dilaksanakan

6. recognition  : pengakuan

7. appropriate  : sesuai

8. ascertaining : memastikan

Nama: Enfanriandi

Kelas: 1EA17

NPM: 12212503

Aside 8 Apr

Management and Human Resources Development

 

Human Resources Development (HRD) as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement. Adam Smith states,“The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. The same statement applies to organizations themselves, but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas. Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change. Also, HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs.[3]

 

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to

accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of

human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others.

 

Vocabulary:

1. improvement           : perbaikan

2. broader                    : lebih luas

3. integrated                : terintegrasi

4. competencies           : kompetensi

5. accomplish              : menyelesaikan

6. comprises                : terdiri dari

7. effort                       : usaha

8. defined                    : didefinisikan

9. prerequisite              : prasyarat

10. opportunity           : kesempatan

Nama : Enfanriandi

Kelas : 1EA17

NPM : 12212503

Aside 8 Apr

Management Function

 

Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental

functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”.

Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’ POSDCORB’where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.

 

For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each

function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others.

 

1. Planning

It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.

 

2. Organizing

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:

-Identification of activities.

-Classification of grouping of activities.

-Assignment of duties.

-Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.

-Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.

 

 

 

3. Staffing

It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves: Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). Recruitment, selection & placement.

-Training & development.

-Remuneration.

-Performance appraisal.

-Promotions & transfer.

 

4. Directing

It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of peoplebecause planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert- personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:

-Supervision

-Motivation

-Leadership

-Communication

 

-Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.

-Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this

purpose.

-Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.

-Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.

 

5. Controlling

It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of

subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps:

a. Establishment of standard performance.

b. Measurement of actual performance.

c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and

finding out deviation if any.

d. Corrective action.

 

Vocabulary:

1. involving     : melibatkan

2. appropriate  : sesuai

3. ensure          : memastikan

4. determining : menentukan

5. advancement: kemajuan

6. enterprise     : perusahaan

7. incentives    : intensif

8. conformities: lembaga

9. occurs          : terjadi

10. deviation   : penyimpangan

Nama: Enfanriandi

Kelas: 1EA17

NPM: 12212503