Archive | April, 2016

tugas 1, enfanriandi

26 Apr
  1. Kalimat yang mengandung subject, verb, complement dan modifier :
  • Subjek adalah bagian dari kalimat dalam kaliamt aktif, Subjek adalah orang atau benda yang melakukan tindakan, dan subjek biasanya mendahului kata kerja.
  • Verb adalah Predikat mengikuti subjek, pada umumnya menunjukkan suatu tindakan.
  • Complement adalah Sebuah kata pelengkap melengkapi kata kerja. Hal ini mirip dengan subjek karena biasanya berupa kata benda, Namun, kata pelengkap pada umumnya mengikuti verba dalam kalimat aktif.
  • Modifier adalah Kata keterangan menerangkan  waktu, tempat atau cara tindakan.

Example :

  • Sari and Anto ate a burger last night. (Sari dan Anto makan burger tadi malam)

Keterangan :

Sari and Anto = Subjek, Ate= Verb, Burger = Complement, Last night = Modifier.

  • Yoga Should have bought gasoline yesterday (Yoga Harus membeli bensin kemarin ).

Keterangan :

Yoga = Subjek, Should have bought = Verb, Gasoline = Complement, Yesterday = Modifier

  • We studied grammar last week ( Kami mempelajaritata bahasapekan lalu )

Keterangan :

We = Subjek, Studied = Verb, Grammar = Complement, Last week = Modifier

  1. Kalimat tenses, present, future dan past
  • Present Tense
  • Simple Present Tense ( Tenses ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang tetap, kebiasaan atau kebenaran esensial yang terjadi dimasa sekarang ).

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1 (s/es)

(-) Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + do + not + Verb 1

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Does + not + Verb 1

(?) Do + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1?

Does + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1?

Contoh:
(+) He studies English everynight.

(-)  He does not study English everynight.

(?) Does he study English everynight?

  • Present Continous Tense (Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu tindakan yang benar-benar sedang dilakukan saat ini atau sedang berlangsung)

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + to be (am/are) + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + to be (is) + Verb 1-ing

(-)  Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + to be (am/are) + not + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + to be (is) + not + Verb 1-ing

(?) To be (am/are) + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1-ing

To be (is) + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1-ing ?
Contoh:
(+) She is eating a cake

(-)  She is not eating a cake

(?) Is she eating a cake?

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense (digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu yang dimulai di masa lalu dan terus dilakukan sampai sekarang)

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + have + been + Verb-ing

Subject (S)  (He, She, It) + has + been + Verb-ing

(-)  Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + have + not + been + Verb-ing

Subject (S)  (He, She, It) + has + not + been + Verb-ing

(?)  Have + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + been + Verb-ing?Has + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + been + Verb-ing?

Contoh:
(+) Sean have been sleeping for 3 hours

(-)  Sean have not been sleeping for 3 hours

(?) Have Sean been sleeping for 3 hours?

Ø  PAST TENSE

·        Simple Past digunakan untuk menyatan fakta atau kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau. Masa lampau bisa berarti 5 menit yang lalu, sejam yang lalu, sehari yang lalu, dst. Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah kata kerja bentuk kedua, bisa berupa regular verbs atau irregular verbs.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It ) + Verb 2

(-)  Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It )  + did + not + Verb 1

(?)  Did + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It ) + Verb 1?

Contoh:
(+) They played basketball lastnight.

(-) They did not play basketball lastnight.

(?) Did they play basketball lastnight?

  • Past Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan ketika kita berada di tengah-tengah kejadian atau melakukan sesuatu pada saat tertentu di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)   (You, They, We ) + to be (were) + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S)    (I, He, She, It) + to be (was) + Verb 1-ing

(-) Subject (S)    (You, They, We ) + to be (were) + not + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S)    (I, He, She, It) + to be (was) + not + Verb 1-ing

(?) To be (were) + Subject (S) (You, They, We ) + Verb 1-ing ?

To be (was) + Subject (S) (I,He, She, It) + Verb 1-ing ?

Contoh:

(+) Chef Billy was cooking a fried rice.

(-) Chef Billy was not cooking a fried rice.

(?) Was Chef Billy cooking a f ried rice?

  • Past Perfect menyatakan ide bahwa sesuatu yang terjadi sebelum tindakan lain di masa lalu terjadi . Hal ini juga dapat menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It)+ had + Verb 3

(-)  Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + not + Verb 3

(?) Had + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + Verb 3?

Contoh:

(+) We had arrived at the school.
(-) We had not arrived at the school

(?) Had we arrived at the school?

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu yang dimulai di masa lalu dan terus sampai waktu lain di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + been + Verb-ing

(-) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + not + been + Verb-ing

(?) Had + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + been + Verb-ing?

Contoh:

(+) Lea and Bob had been working together since 1990.

(-) Lea and Bob had not been working together since 1990.

(?) Had Lea and Bob been working together since 1990?

  • Future Tense (Waktu yang Akan Datang)
  • Simple Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Will/Shall + not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + ANA

(+) I will make a cake tomorrow.

(-) I will not make a cake tomorrow.

(?) Will you make a cake tomorrow?

  • Future Continuous Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan sedang berlangsung atau akan sedang dilakukan di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O

(-) S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing + O

(?) Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing + O?

(+) I will be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(-) I will not be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(?) Will you be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST?

  • Future Perfect Tense tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah terjadi atau akan telah selesai dilakukan diwaktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + ANA

(+) We shall have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(-) We shall not have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(?) Shall we have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock

  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang dimasa lampau.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA ?

(+) She will have been studying for a while when you come here.

(-) She will not have been studying for a while when you come here.

(?) Will she have been studying for a while when you come here?

  • Past Future (Akan datang di waktu lampau)
  • Simple Past Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi atau dilakukan secara berulang-ulang atau sudah menjadi kebiasaan di masa lampau, penggunaan kata “would” dalam kalimat biasanya menunjukkan bahwa pembicara ingin sesuatu itu terjadi di masa depan, yang mungkin atau tidak mungkin menjadi kenyataan.

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + V1 + O + ANA

(+) They will go home soon.

(-) They will not go home soon.

(?) Would they go home soon?

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(+) My mother would be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My mother would not be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would my mother be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning?

  • Past Future Perfect Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sudah selesai pada waktu lampau atau menyatakan   pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syaratnya sudah pasti tidak akan terpenuhi.

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should+ Not + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(+) She would have come here if she had called him.

(-) She wouldn’t have come here if she had not called him.

(?) would she have come here if she had called him ?

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(+) My boyfriend would have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My boyfriend would not have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would your boyfriend have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning?

  1. Subject and verb agreement
  • Hal yang penting dikarenakan berhubungan dengan penyusunan sebuah kalimat dan pengungkapan. Dua atau lebih subjek yang dihubungkan oleh “and” berarti berbentuk plural. Kecuali untuk subjek “every” dan “each.” Jika terdapat kalimat yang subject-nya memakai Each / Every, maka verb yang digunakan adalah verb singular.
  • either” dan “neither” memiliki fungsi yang sama seperti kata “too” dan “so” pada klausa kedua (second clause) dalam kalimat positif (affirmative sentence/ agreement). Kata “Either”dan “neither” ini digunakan untuk mengindikasikan kalimat negative (negative sentence/ agreement). Aturan yang sama juga berlaku untuk penggunaan “to be”, “auxiliary verb” (kata kerja bantu), dan “verb” (kata kerja).

Either

  1. I didn’t go to the mosque yesterday, and Ali didn’t either.
  2. We can’t study in the library, and he can’t either
  3. You didn’t pay the taxes, and they didn’t either

Neither

  1. I didn’t go to the mosque yesterday, and neither did Ali
  2. He doesn’t know the answer, and neither does she.
  3. He manager isn’t too happy with the project, and neither is his assistant.
  • Gerund adalah kata kerja (Verb) yang digunakan tetapi fungsinya berubah sebagai kata benda (Noun). atau dapat juga dikatakan bahwa gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan (Verbal Noun). Bentuk dari Gerund adalah: VERB 1 + ING
  1. Swimming is good service.
  2. Studying needs time and patience.
  3. My favorite activity is reading.
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tugas 2, Enfanriandi

26 Apr
  1. Modal Auxiliary Verb

Modal Auxiliary verb adalah kata yang ditempatkan sebelum main verb (kata kerja utama) untuk memodifikasi makna dari kata kerja utama tersebut. Fungsinya untuk mengekspresikan willingness (kemauan) atau ability (kemampuan), necessity (kebutuhan), dan possibility (kemungkinan).

What is Modal Auxiliary Verb?

verbs include can, Could, may, Might, will, Would, Marshall (typically in British English), Shall, Should, must, and ought to so-called ‘capital of the auxiliary verb’ (auxiliary verb of capital). They are used before the infinitive or any other verb, and adding a specific meaning. Need, dare, and Had better sometimes also be used as auxiliary verb capital.

I

you (singular)

he

we

you (plural)

=> they can write well.

There is also a separate section on the Modal Auxiliaries, which divides these verbs into their various meanings of necessity, advice, ability, expectation, permission, possibility, etc., and provides sample sentences in various tenses. See the section on Conditional Verb Forms for help with the modal auxiliary would. The shades of meaning among modal auxiliaries are multifarious and complex. Most English-as-a-Second-Language textbooks will contain at least one chapter on their usage. For more advanced students, A University Grammar of English, by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum, contains an excellent, extensive analysis of modal auxiliaries.

The analysis of Modal Auxiliaries is based on a similar analysis in The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers by Maxine Hairston and John J. Ruszkiewicz. 4th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1996. The description of helping verbs on this page is based on The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsay Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, & Kay Limburg. 6th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1995. By permission of Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc. Examples in all cases are our own.

Uses of Can and Could

PATTERN OF CAPITAL Auxiliaries:

* (?) CAPITAL + S + V1

Can she do the test?

Will we go to the supermarket?

* (+) S + CAPITAL + V1

She can do the test.

We will from go to the supermarket

* (-) S + CAPITAL NOT + V1

She can not do the test.

We will from not go to the supermarket.

* (?) CAPITAL + S + V1

Can she do the test?

Will we go to the supermarket?

The modal auxiliary can is used :

  1. Expressing an ATP (Reveals Capabilities)

Ex: I can do the test.

  1. Expressing a Possibility (Reveal Possible)

Ex: He cans be in the class now.

  1. Expressing a Permission (Reveal permission)

Ex: You can leave me no.

American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there’s a profit in it.

  1. To express ability (in the sense of being able to do something or knowing how to do something):

Ex : He can speak Spanish but he can’t write it very well.

  1. To expression permission (in the sense of being allowed or permitted to do something):

Ex : Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (Note that can is less formal than may. Also, some writers will object to the use of can in this context.)

The modal auxiliary could is used

  • to express an ability in the past:

I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.

  • to express past or future permission:

Could I bury my cat in your back yard?

  • to express present possibility:

We could always spend the afternoon just sitting around talking.

  • to express possibility or ability in contingent circumstances:

If he studied harder, he could pass this course.

  • In expressing ability,

Can and could frequently also imply willingness:

Can you help me with my homework?

Can versus May

Whether the auxiliary verb can can be used to express permission or not — “Can I leave the room now?” [“I don’t know if you can, but you may.”] — depends on the level of formality of your text or situation. As Theodore Bernstein puts it in The Careful Writer, “a writer who is attentive to the proprieties will preserve the traditional distinction: can for ability or power to do something, may for permission to do it.

The question is at what level can you safely ignore the “proprieties.” Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, tenth edition, says the battle is over and can can be used in virtually any situation to express or ask for permission. Most authorities, however, recommend a stricter adherence to the distinction, at least in formal situations.

Authority: The Careful Writer by Theodore Bernstein. The Free Press: New York. 1998. p. 87.

Must

  1. Expressing a necessity (Reveal mandatory)

Ex: You must do everything I say.

  1. Expressing a Prohibition (ban Reveal)

Ex: You must not break the school rules.

  1. Expressing a certainty (certainty Mengukapkan)

Ex: John must be upset. He failed in the final test.

Uses of May and Might

Two of the more troublesome modal auxiliaries are may and might. When used in the context of granting or seeking permission, might is the past tense of may. Might is considerably more tentative than may.

  • May I leave class early?
  • If I’ve finished all my work and I’m really quiet, might I leave early?

And the context of expressing possibility, may and might are interchangeable present and future forms and might + have + past participle is the past form:

  • She might be my advisor next semester.
  • She may be my advisor next semester.
  • She might have advised me not to take biology.

Avoid confusing the sense of possibility in may with the implication of might, that a hypothetical situation has not in fact occurred. For instance, let’s say there’s been a helicopter crash at the airport. In his initial report, before all the facts are gathered, a newscaster could say that the pilot “may have been injured.” After we discover that the pilot is in fact all right, the newscaster can now say that the pilot “might have been injured” because it is a hypothetical situation that has not occurred. Another example: a body had been identified after much work by a detective. It was reported that “without this painstaking work, the body may have remained unidentified.” Since the body was, in fact, identified, might is clearly called for.

Should

  1. Expressing the advisability (Reveal advice)
  2. Example: We Should do something now.
  3. b. Expressing a certainty Future (Mengukapkan certainty in the future)
  4. Example: They Should Be there tomorrow.

Uses of Will and Would

In certain contexts, will and would are virtually interchangeable, but there are differences. Notice that the contracted form ‘ll is very frequently used for will.

  1. Expressing a certainty (certainty Reveal)

Example: We will of come to her party. I promise.

I’ll wash the dishes if you dry.

  1. Expressing a Willingness (Expresses Desire)

Example: There’s a knock on the door. I will from open it.

  1. Expressing a request (Reveal request)

Example: Will you help me?

We’re going to the movies. Will you join us?

  1. It can also express intention (especially in the first person):

I’ll do my exercises later on.

  1. and prediction:

specific: The meeting will be over soon.

timeless: Humidity will ruin my hairdo.

habitual: The river will overflow its banks every spring.

  1. Would can also be used to express willingness:

Would you please take off your hat?

  1. It can also express insistence (rather rare, and with a strong stress on the word “would”):

Now you’ve ruined everything. You would act that way.

  1. and characteristic activity:

customary: After work, he would walk to his home in West Hartford.

typical (casual): She would cause the whole family to be late, every time.

  1. In a main clause, would can express a hypothetical meaning:

My cocker spaniel would weigh a ton if I let her eat what she wants.

  1. Finally, would can express a sense of probability:

I hear a whistle. That would be the five o’clock train.

Uses of Used to

The auxiliary verb construction used to is used to express an action that took place in the past, perhaps customarily, but now that action no longer customarily takes place:

  • We used to take long vacation trips with the whole family.

The spelling of this verb is a problem for some people because the “-ed” ending quite naturally disappears in speaking: “We yoostoo take long trips.” But it ought not to disappear in writing. There are exceptions, though. When the auxiliary is combined with another auxiliary, did, the past tense is carried by the new auxiliary and the “-ed” ending is dropped.

This will often happen in the interrogative:

  • Didn’t you use to go jogging every morning before breakfast?
  • It didn’t use to be that way.

Used to can also be used to convey the sense of being accustomed to or familiar with something:

  • The tire factory down the road really stinks, but we’re used to it by now.
  • I like these old sneakers; I’m used to them.

Used to is best reserved for colloquial usage; it has no place in formal or academic text.

http://niwayanw.blogspot.co.id/2011/01/modal-auxiliaries.html

  1. Relative clause

Relative clause merupakan klausa dependen yang berfungsi menerangkan kata benda sehingga didapat informasi yang jelas mengenai benda tersebut. Untuk menghubungkan antar klausa digunakan kata penghubung seperti, that, which, who, whom, dan whose.

Berikut adalah contoh kalimat relative clause.

The woman who wears the red dress is my aunt

This is the bicycle that my father bought me yesterday

The man whom we met is my father’s friend

The family whose house is in front of the our house is our relatives

These are the cookies which my mothe gives us.

Penggunaan Relative Clause (That, Which, Who, Whom, dan Whose)
Who
Digunakan untuk orang yang berfungsi sebagai subjek.

1.The man who is running is my brother

Orang yang sedang berlari adalah saudara saya

2.My brothes who lives in Bandung is a police man

Saudara saya yang tinggal di Bandung adalah seorang polisi

3.The man who teaches the lesson patienly is a teacher

Orang yang mengajarkan pelajaran sabar adalah guru

  1. Do you know the people who live next door?

Kamu tahu orang yang tinggal di sebelah?

Whom
Digunakan untuk orang yang berfungsi sebagai objek

1.The students whom I met yesterday are coming to my house
Murid yang saya temui kemarin akan dating ke rumah saya

2.I never thought before that I would marry a woman whom I didn’t love
Saya tidak pernah menyangka saya akan menikah dengan perempuan yang tidak saya cinta

3.The boy whom we gave money yesterday is Amir

Anak laki-laki yang kami berikan uang kemarin adalah Amir
Which
Digunakan untuk benda

1.This is the book which I always read
Ini buku yang selalu saya baca

2.There is a program on TV tonignt which you might like
Nanti malam ada acara di TV yang mungkin kamu suka

3.Bali which has a lot of historical temples is Paradise Island

Bali yang memiliki banyak candi sejarah adalah Paradise Island

That
Digunakan untuk orang dan benda
1. The policeman that I talked to will retire next year
Polisi yang bebicara dengan saya akan pensiun tahun depan
2. This is the house that I will live in when I am old
Inilah rumah yang akan saya tinggali kalau saya sudah tua nanti

3.Borobudur that was bombed years ago is an historical temple
Borobudur yang dibom tahun lalu adalah sebuah kuil bersejarah
Whose
Digunakan untuk menunjukkan kepunyaan
1. The manager whose secretary is beautiful is married
Manajer yang sekertarisnya cantik sudah menikah
2. I saw a girl whose hair came down to her waist
Saya melihat seorang gadis yang rambutnya panjang sampai pinggang

  1. The man whose doughter we visited two days ago is Mr. Rudi

Putri pria yang kami mengunjungi dua hari yang lalu adalah Mr Rudi

http://www.e-sbmptn.com/2014/11/pengertian-relative-clause-dan-contohnya.html