tugas 1, enfanriandi

26 Apr
  1. Kalimat yang mengandung subject, verb, complement dan modifier :
  • Subjek adalah bagian dari kalimat dalam kaliamt aktif, Subjek adalah orang atau benda yang melakukan tindakan, dan subjek biasanya mendahului kata kerja.
  • Verb adalah Predikat mengikuti subjek, pada umumnya menunjukkan suatu tindakan.
  • Complement adalah Sebuah kata pelengkap melengkapi kata kerja. Hal ini mirip dengan subjek karena biasanya berupa kata benda, Namun, kata pelengkap pada umumnya mengikuti verba dalam kalimat aktif.
  • Modifier adalah Kata keterangan menerangkan  waktu, tempat atau cara tindakan.

Example :

  • Sari and Anto ate a burger last night. (Sari dan Anto makan burger tadi malam)

Keterangan :

Sari and Anto = Subjek, Ate= Verb, Burger = Complement, Last night = Modifier.

  • Yoga Should have bought gasoline yesterday (Yoga Harus membeli bensin kemarin ).

Keterangan :

Yoga = Subjek, Should have bought = Verb, Gasoline = Complement, Yesterday = Modifier

  • We studied grammar last week ( Kami mempelajaritata bahasapekan lalu )

Keterangan :

We = Subjek, Studied = Verb, Grammar = Complement, Last week = Modifier

  1. Kalimat tenses, present, future dan past
  • Present Tense
  • Simple Present Tense ( Tenses ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang tetap, kebiasaan atau kebenaran esensial yang terjadi dimasa sekarang ).

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1 (s/es)

(-) Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + do + not + Verb 1

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Does + not + Verb 1

(?) Do + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1?

Does + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1?

Contoh:
(+) He studies English everynight.

(-)  He does not study English everynight.

(?) Does he study English everynight?

  • Present Continous Tense (Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu tindakan yang benar-benar sedang dilakukan saat ini atau sedang berlangsung)

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + to be (am/are) + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + to be (is) + Verb 1-ing

(-)  Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + to be (am/are) + not + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S) (He, She, It) + to be (is) + not + Verb 1-ing

(?) To be (am/are) + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + Verb 1-ing

To be (is) + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + Verb 1-ing ?
Contoh:
(+) She is eating a cake

(-)  She is not eating a cake

(?) Is she eating a cake?

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense (digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu yang dimulai di masa lalu dan terus dilakukan sampai sekarang)

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + have + been + Verb-ing

Subject (S)  (He, She, It) + has + been + Verb-ing

(-)  Subject (S)  (I, You, They, We ) + have + not + been + Verb-ing

Subject (S)  (He, She, It) + has + not + been + Verb-ing

(?)  Have + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We ) + been + Verb-ing?Has + Subject (S) (He, She, It) + been + Verb-ing?

Contoh:
(+) Sean have been sleeping for 3 hours

(-)  Sean have not been sleeping for 3 hours

(?) Have Sean been sleeping for 3 hours?

Ø  PAST TENSE

·        Simple Past digunakan untuk menyatan fakta atau kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau. Masa lampau bisa berarti 5 menit yang lalu, sejam yang lalu, sehari yang lalu, dst. Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah kata kerja bentuk kedua, bisa berupa regular verbs atau irregular verbs.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It ) + Verb 2

(-)  Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It )  + did + not + Verb 1

(?)  Did + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It ) + Verb 1?

Contoh:
(+) They played basketball lastnight.

(-) They did not play basketball lastnight.

(?) Did they play basketball lastnight?

  • Past Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan ketika kita berada di tengah-tengah kejadian atau melakukan sesuatu pada saat tertentu di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)   (You, They, We ) + to be (were) + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S)    (I, He, She, It) + to be (was) + Verb 1-ing

(-) Subject (S)    (You, They, We ) + to be (were) + not + Verb 1-ing

Subject (S)    (I, He, She, It) + to be (was) + not + Verb 1-ing

(?) To be (were) + Subject (S) (You, They, We ) + Verb 1-ing ?

To be (was) + Subject (S) (I,He, She, It) + Verb 1-ing ?

Contoh:

(+) Chef Billy was cooking a fried rice.

(-) Chef Billy was not cooking a fried rice.

(?) Was Chef Billy cooking a f ried rice?

  • Past Perfect menyatakan ide bahwa sesuatu yang terjadi sebelum tindakan lain di masa lalu terjadi . Hal ini juga dapat menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu terjadi sebelum waktu tertentu di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It)+ had + Verb 3

(-)  Subject (S)    (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + not + Verb 3

(?) Had + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + Verb 3?

Contoh:

(+) We had arrived at the school.
(-) We had not arrived at the school

(?) Had we arrived at the school?

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu yang dimulai di masa lalu dan terus sampai waktu lain di masa lalu.

RUMUS
(+) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + been + Verb-ing

(-) Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + had + not + been + Verb-ing

(?) Had + Subject (S) (I, You, They, We, He, She, It) + been + Verb-ing?

Contoh:

(+) Lea and Bob had been working together since 1990.

(-) Lea and Bob had not been working together since 1990.

(?) Had Lea and Bob been working together since 1990?

  • Future Tense (Waktu yang Akan Datang)
  • Simple Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Will/Shall + not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + ANA

(+) I will make a cake tomorrow.

(-) I will not make a cake tomorrow.

(?) Will you make a cake tomorrow?

  • Future Continuous Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan sedang berlangsung atau akan sedang dilakukan di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O

(-) S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing + O

(?) Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing + O?

(+) I will be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(-) I will not be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(?) Will you be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST?

  • Future Perfect Tense tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah terjadi atau akan telah selesai dilakukan diwaktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + ANA

(+) We shall have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(-) We shall not have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(?) Shall we have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock

  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang dimasa lampau.

Rumus :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA ?

(+) She will have been studying for a while when you come here.

(-) She will not have been studying for a while when you come here.

(?) Will she have been studying for a while when you come here?

  • Past Future (Akan datang di waktu lampau)
  • Simple Past Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi atau dilakukan secara berulang-ulang atau sudah menjadi kebiasaan di masa lampau, penggunaan kata “would” dalam kalimat biasanya menunjukkan bahwa pembicara ingin sesuatu itu terjadi di masa depan, yang mungkin atau tidak mungkin menjadi kenyataan.

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + V1 + O + ANA

(+) They will go home soon.

(-) They will not go home soon.

(?) Would they go home soon?

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(+) My mother would be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My mother would not be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would my mother be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning?

  • Past Future Perfect Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sudah selesai pada waktu lampau atau menyatakan   pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syaratnya sudah pasti tidak akan terpenuhi.

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should+ Not + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(+) She would have come here if she had called him.

(-) She wouldn’t have come here if she had not called him.

(?) would she have come here if she had called him ?

Rumus :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(+) My boyfriend would have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My boyfriend would not have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would your boyfriend have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning?

  1. Subject and verb agreement
  • Hal yang penting dikarenakan berhubungan dengan penyusunan sebuah kalimat dan pengungkapan. Dua atau lebih subjek yang dihubungkan oleh “and” berarti berbentuk plural. Kecuali untuk subjek “every” dan “each.” Jika terdapat kalimat yang subject-nya memakai Each / Every, maka verb yang digunakan adalah verb singular.
  • either” dan “neither” memiliki fungsi yang sama seperti kata “too” dan “so” pada klausa kedua (second clause) dalam kalimat positif (affirmative sentence/ agreement). Kata “Either”dan “neither” ini digunakan untuk mengindikasikan kalimat negative (negative sentence/ agreement). Aturan yang sama juga berlaku untuk penggunaan “to be”, “auxiliary verb” (kata kerja bantu), dan “verb” (kata kerja).

Either

  1. I didn’t go to the mosque yesterday, and Ali didn’t either.
  2. We can’t study in the library, and he can’t either
  3. You didn’t pay the taxes, and they didn’t either

Neither

  1. I didn’t go to the mosque yesterday, and neither did Ali
  2. He doesn’t know the answer, and neither does she.
  3. He manager isn’t too happy with the project, and neither is his assistant.
  • Gerund adalah kata kerja (Verb) yang digunakan tetapi fungsinya berubah sebagai kata benda (Noun). atau dapat juga dikatakan bahwa gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan (Verbal Noun). Bentuk dari Gerund adalah: VERB 1 + ING
  1. Swimming is good service.
  2. Studying needs time and patience.
  3. My favorite activity is reading.
Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: